Jane's Golden Rule of Typography for Print
as per Jane Hannah, 2016.11.15

Point Size:
Print Publications
Body texts should have a body size of 9 to 11 points — for most projects between 9, 10 or 11 points is ideal.

For seniors and children you will need to use 12, 13 or 14 points or other specific requirements — never use a typeface size smaller than 9 points for publications.

Commercial Business
For business cards, usually the point size should be between 8.6 pts and 9 pts... not smaller than 8.6 and not bigger than 9!

Web
between 12 px and 16 px is ideal. This page is in 16 px.

Leading:
Print Publications
Point sizes that range between 9 points and 11 points.
• 130% to 160% more than the point size... this means that you multiply your point size by 1.3, or 1.4, or 1.25, etc.;

For point sizes between 18 and 72 points:
• Leading is BLOCK or SOLID, meaning 18 on 18 or 21 on 21, etc.

For point sizes over 72 points, then we start deducting space:
•  -110%, etc. For this you must really look at a typeface and determine visually what is best with that specific typeface.

Web
A leading of 130% to 160% is ideal for web. This page is at 140%.

Font Family:
If the body text is in a SERIF typeface, then its titles and sub-titles should be in SANS SERIF however if the body text is SANS SERIF, then titles and sub-titles should be in SERIF.

Column Width:
The ideal way is the first one (this is the one that I verify).
1❖ Count the number of words in a line
— between 11 and 16 words per line;
OR

2❖ 2x times to 3.5x times the Point Size in picas ie: point size is 11 points, therefore my column width should be 11 x 2 = 22p0 to 11 x 3 = 33 picas wide —
I prefer this equation as I use 3x most of the time;
OR
3❖ count the number of signs — between 55 and 80 signs in a line.

Paragraph Indents:
1 pica per 10 picas wide or one-tenth (1/10) of the total column width.

Hyphens:
ENGLISH language:
6 characters: smallest word possible;
• 3 characters: before a hyphen;
• 2 characters: after a hyphen.

FRENCH language, high-end print publications:
5 characters: smallest word possible;
• 2 characters: before a hyphen;
• 3 characters: after a hyphen.

FRENCH language, newspaper quality publications:
4 characters: smallest word possible;
• 2 characters: before a hyphen;
• 2 characters: after a hyphen.

“Fi-nally is a conventionally acceptable line-end hyphenation, but final-ly is not, because it takes too little of the word ahead to the next line.”

i.e.: “In English one hyphenates cab-ri-o-let but in French ca-brio-let. The conventions of the individual language should be followed even for single foreign words or brief quotations.”

Consecutive Hyphens in a Row:
High-end quality (magazines, books, etc.): 2 consecutive hyphens in a row;
Newspaper quality: 3 consecutive hyphens in a row.

Numbers:
Under the number 10, we write the complete number ie: three not 3;

Widows, Orphans:
Widow: paragraph-ending line that falls at the beginning of the following page/column, thus separated from the remainder of the text;

Orphan: paragraph-opening line that appears by itself at the bottom of a page/column;

Word, part of a word, or very short line that appears by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans result in too much white space between paragraphs or at the bottom of a page.

__________________

The Elements of Typography Style for Web
(information taken from the following site:
http://www.webtypography.net)

Book: The Elements of Typographic Style
By: Robert Bringhurst
ISBN: 0-88179-132-6
Publishers: Hartley & Marks

A brilliant book to have and to cherish

Word Space
“If text is set ragged right, the word space (the space between words) can be fixed and unchanging. If the text is justified (set flush left and right), the word space must be elastic. In either case the size of the ideal word space varies from one circumstance to another, depending on factors such as letterfit, type color, and size. A loosely fitted or bold face will need a larger interval between the words. At larger sizes, when letterfit is tightened, the spacing of words can be tightened as well.”

Spaces :

Length of Line
“Anything from 45 to 75 characters is widely regarded as a satisfactory length of line for a single-column page set in a serifed text face in a text size.
The 66-character line (counting both letters and spaces) is widely regarded as ideal.
For multiple column work, a better average is 40 to 50 characters.”

Alignment
“In justified text, there is always a trade-off between evenness of word spacing and frequency of hyphenation.
Narrow measures – which prevent good justification – are commonly used when the text is set in multiple columns. Setting ragged right under these conditions will lighten the page and decrease its stiffness.
Many unserifed faces look best when set ragged no matter what the length of the measure. And mono-spaced fonts, which are common on typewriters, always look better set ragged.”

Alteration of letters
“In the world of digital type, it is very easy for a designer or compositor with no regard for letters to squish them into cattle trains and ship them to slaughter.”

Leading
“Vertical space is metered in a different way [to horizontal space]. You must choose not only the overall measure – the depth of the column or page – but also a basic rhythmical unit. This unit is the leading, which is the distance from one baseline to the next.”

Add/delete vertical space in regular intervals
“Headings, subheads, block quotations, footnotes, illustrations, captions and other intrusions into the text create syncopations and variations against the base rhythm of regularly leaded lines. These variations can and should add life to the page, but the main text should also return after each variation precisely on beat and in phase.”

Hyphenated line-ends
At hyphenated line-ends, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward
“Fi-nally is a conventionally acceptable line-end hyphenation, but final-ly is not, because it takes too little of the word ahead to the next line.”

Consecutive hyphenated lines
Avoid more than three consecutive hyphenated lines;

Hyphenate according to the conventions of the language
“In English one hyphenates cab-ri-o-let but in French ca-brio-let. The conventions of the individual language should be followed even for single foreign words or brief quotations.”

Widows & Orphans
Never begin a page with the last line of a multi-line paragraph

“The stub-ends left when paragraphs end on the first line of a page are called widows. They have a past but not a future, and they look foreshortened and forlorn.”

Point Size
“In the sixteenth century, a series of common sizes developed among European typographers, and the series survived with little change and few additions for 400 years. [...] Use the old familiar scale, or use new scales of your own devising, but limit yourself, at first, to a modest set of distinct and related intervals.”
For text which is to be read on screen, the situation is slightly more complicated. Arguably the most appropriate unit is pixels which is a unit relative to the screen resolution. Setting text sizes in pixels gives web designers precision similar to that afforded to print designers. However, Internet Explorer does not allow readers to resize text set in pixels (although IE7 does provide full page zooming), so we need to look to other units.
Sizing text using the em unit is the next most appropriate approach. The em is a true typographic unit and was recommended by the W3C from the outset of CSS. Ems are a relative unit and act as multipliers based on the text element’s parent element. Thus, if the body of a web page has 16 px text by default, making paragraphs render at 12 px would mean require setting paragraphs at 0.75em.

/ jh - 20160418:: This is in .6em ::